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科学家创造出第一个计算机生成的基因组

kira86 于2019-04-12发布 l 已有人浏览
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科学家创造出第一个计算机生成的基因组,未来有望出现定制合成生命。
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Swiss Scientists Create First Computer Generated Genome

瑞士科学家创造出第一个计算机生成基因组

A team of Swiss scientists using gene editing technology have for the first time created a computer-generated genome of a living thing. In this case, a tiny freshwater bacteria that has about 4,000 genes that make up its genome. That's a lot of genes to stick together. But the scientists took advantage of the fact that all living things have a lot of redundant and junk DNA in their genome.They created an algorithm that cuts out that excess DNA and used gene editing technology to create a bare-bones DNA version of the tiny bacteria. This algorithm rewrites the letters of DNA from a natural genome into completely new sequence. And this new sequence is really easy to manufacture from a chemical perspective. The team leaders brothers Beat and Matthias Christen work at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology.

一组瑞士科学家利用基因编辑技术首次创造出了一个由计算机生成的生物基因组。在图示情况下,在这种微小的淡水细菌种,有大约四千个基因组成了它的基因组。这需要由很多基因结合在一起。但科学家们利用了这样一个事实,即所有生物的基因组中都有大量的冗余和垃圾DNA。他们发明了一种算法,能够将多余的DNA切除掉,并利用基因编辑技术创造出这种微小细菌的基础DNA版本。该算法将来自自然基因组的DNA碱基改写成全新的序列。从化学的角度来看,很容易制成这一新序列。团队带头人比特和马蒂亚斯·克里斯汀兄弟在瑞士联邦理工学院工作。

Matthias says the genome they created isn't alive, it's more a proof-of-concept experiment that's a first step towards building designer genomes that will function like living things. The genome itself is not fully functional, but in future it will be possible to remove these design flaws of the current version of the algorithm and improve the performance of it. And once the algorithm is perfect, it's obvious that it will produce a fully functional genome which produces a fully replicating artificiality.

马蒂亚斯说,他们创造的基因组不是真实存在的,更多是一个概念验证实验,这是构建设计基因组的第一步,而设计基因组将像生物一样正常运行。基因组本身并不具备全部机能,但在未来将有可能消除当前版本算法的设计缺陷,并提高其性能。而且一旦算法完善,毫无疑问它将产生一个功能完全的基因组,从而产生一个完全复制的人造制品。

And that he says opens all kinds of new doors in the realms of medicine and could allow scientists to create designer microbes or active vitamins. For biotechnology, there is a huge potential to create based on these technologies new genomes that are designed for specific purpose. Just to name a few would be vitamin production for example, but also what is fascinating that based on these genomes, we could create new ways how we produced therapeutics, new therapeutics. For example, genomic vaccines and also applications for personalized medicines. The team is also very aware that they are on the cusp of building living things and say the time is now,before their algorithm is perfected, to talk about the ethical issues that come along with the idea of creating life in a test-tube. In the near future, artificial organism based on this technology will be built and now it's the time to discuss the potential, future potential of this technology, but also these costs about how society and politics should evaluate this technology for the further regulation. So where should be used and where probably it's not advice to use these technologies. Similar work has been done. But this is the first time a computer has created an actual organism. The team was able to build their genome in about a year on a 120,000 dollars budget.

他说,这为医学领域打开了各种新的大门,可以让科学家创造出专门设计的微生物或活性维生素。对于生物技术来说,基于这些技术,人们有巨大的潜力去创造专门为特定目的设计的新基因组。举个例子来说,比如维生素的生产,此外有趣的是,基于这些基因组,我们可以创造出新的方法来生产治疗药物,新的治疗药物。例如,基因组疫苗和针对个人的药物应用。该团队也非常清楚,他们正处在构建生物的尖端,他们称,在其算法完善之前,现在是时候讨论伴随着在试管中创造生命的这一想法而来的伦理问题。在不久的将来,将会建立起基于这项技术的人工有机体,现在是讨论这项技术的潜力、未来潜力的时候了,也是讨论社会和政治方面应该如何评估这项技术,以进行进一步监管的时候了。在什么情况下可以使用这些技术,什么时候可能不建议用这些技术。目前已经进行了类似的工作,但这是计算机第一次创造出真正的有机体。该团队在大约一年的时间里构建了其基因组,预算为十二万美元。

Kevin Enix VOA News

美国之音记者Kevin Enix报道。

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