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南极洲附近的海冰急剧减少

kira86 于2019-07-09发布 l 已有人浏览
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科学家们称,南极洲附近的海冰量在短短几年内就从创纪录的最高值下降到历史最低值。海冰是覆盖海洋而非陆地的冰。
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Sea Ice around Antarctica Shows Sharp Decrease

南极洲附近的海冰急剧减少

Scientists say the amount of sea ice around Antarctica has decreased from a record high to a record low in only a few years.

科学家们称,南极洲附近的海冰量在短短几年内就从创纪录的最高值下降到历史最低值。

Sea ice is ice covering the ocean rather than land.

海冰是覆盖海洋而非陆地的冰。

Ice floating in the waters around the Antarctic continent started increasing in 1979, about the time satellite observations first started.

1979年,大约刚开始卫星观测的时候,南极大陆周围水域的浮冰就开始增多。

The amount of Antarctic sea ice reached a record high in 2014. But a study of data gathered by satellites from the United States space agency NASA showed something different three years later. The data suggested that the yearly average amount of Antarctic sea ice reached its lowest level.

2014年,南极海冰量创下最高历史记录。但美国宇航局(NASA)卫星收集的数据研究表明,三年后情况有所不同。这些数据表明,南极海冰的年平均量达到了最低水平。

Scientists released the findings on July 1 in a study published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

科学家们于7月1日在《美国国家科学院院院刊》的一项研究中公布了这一发现。

National Snow and Ice Data Center director Mark Serreze said that, in recent years, “things have been crazy.” He told The Associated Press the quickly decreasing ice levels are a “white-knuckle ride.”

国家冰雪数据中心主任马克·塞雷泽表示,近年来,“事情变得很不正常。”他告诉美联社,冰层的迅速下降“令人紧张担忧”。

Serreze and other experts said they do not know what has caused the loss of ice. It could be a natural change, or a result of rising world temperatures caused by human activity.

塞雷泽和其他专家表示,他们不知道是什么导致了海冰的减少。可能是自然变化,也可能是人类活动导致全球变暖的结果。

“But the fact that a change this big can happen in such a short time should be viewed as an indication that the Earth has the potential for significant and rapid change,” said University of Colorado ice scientist Waleed Abdalati.

“但是,在这么短的时间内发生这么大的变化,这一事实应该被视为一种象征,那就是地球有可能发生重大而迅速的改变,” 科罗拉多大学研究冰层的科学家瓦利德·阿卜杜拉蒂说。

In the polar areas, sea ice levels increase during the winter and shrink in the summer. Around Antarctica, sea ice covered an average area of 12.8 million square kilometers in 2014. But the study shows that by 2017, only 10.7 million square kilometers of sea was covered by ice.

在极地地区,冬季海冰冰面上升,夏季海冰冰面下降。2014年,南极海冰平均覆盖面积为1280万平方公里。但研究表明,到2017年,海冰覆盖面积只有1070万平方公里。

The difference represents an area bigger than the size of Mexico.

相差的面积比墨西哥的国土面积还要大。

Claire Parkinson is the NASA climate scientist who wrote the report. She says losing that much sea ice in just three years “is pretty incredible” and faster than anything scientists have seen before.

克莱尔·帕金森是美国宇航局的气候科学家,她撰写了这份报告。她表示,在短短三年内减少这么多的海冰“相当不可思议”,而且减少速度比科学家以往观察到的任何东西都要快。

Antarctic sea ice increased slightly in 2018. Although sea ice is expanding during the winter in Antarctica, levels in May and June of this year were the lowest on record, the ice data center reported.

2018年南极海冰略有增加。据海冰数据中心报道,尽管南极海冰覆盖面积冬季不断扩大,但在今年5月和6月海冰覆盖面达到历史最低值。

Antarctica’s temperatures are generally lower than those near the North Pole. In the north, the Arctic is a floating collection of ice on an ocean surrounded by land. Antarctica, in the south, is just the opposite, with land surrounded by an ocean. That causes the ice to develop much farther out, Parkinson said.

帕金森称,南极洲的温度通常比北极附近的温度低。在北方,北极地区海洋被陆地包围,上面全是漂浮的海冰。南极洲在南部,与其正好相反,陆地被海洋包围,使得冰在更远的地方形成。

When Antarctic sea ice was expanding, scientists pointed to changes in wind and air pressure or the movements of the ocean.They also considered natural ongoing changes in the climate.

对于南极海冰覆盖面的扩大,科学家们归因于风压和气压的变化或海洋的运动。他们还考虑到气候不断的自然变化的原因。

Now, some of those explanations may need to be reconsidered, making what happens next a mystery, Parkinson said.

帕金森称,现在,有些解释可能需要重新考虑,这使接下来可能发生的事情又成为一个谜。

I’m Pete Musto.

皮特·穆斯托报道。

 

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