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说英语有口音?别太在意 专家教你正确看待口音

kira86 于2019-06-11发布 l 已有人浏览
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每位英语学习者都希望自己的英语发音更地道,不希望自己的英语听起来有口音。专家教你正确看待自己的口音,那是文化的延伸、个人身份的延伸。
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Keep Your Identity While Changing Your Accent

在改变口音的同时保留你的特性

English learners all over the world have the same question: how can I speak more like a native speaker?

全球各地的英语学习者都有一个同样的问题:我如何才能把英语说得更地道、发音更像英语为母语的人?

A big industry has grown up around helping non-native English speakers change their accent. Accent is more than simply how you pronounce individual words. It also includes the stress and intonation patterns for whole sentences.

帮助非英语母语人士矫正口音已经成为一个大产业。口音不仅仅是指单个单词的发音,口音还包括整个句子的重音和语调。

There are many books and software programs, online and in-person courses that promise to teach a "native accent." But is it really necessary to sound exactly like a native speaker? Some experts say it is not.

有许多承诺教会你地道发音的书籍、软件程序、在线课程以及面对面课程。但是,真的有必要让你的发音听起来像一个英语为母语的人吗?一些专家表示,真的没必要。

Eusebia V. Mont leads the Accent Modification Program at the University of Maryland's Department of Hearing & Speech Sciences. Mont talked about it to VOA Learning English.

尤西比亚·维·蒙特(音译)领导着马里兰大学演说及听觉科学部的口音矫正项目。蒙特在接受美国之音慢速英语采访时谈到了这个问题。

The Accent Modification Program serves students, faculty and the local community. Students come to the program for one or two school terms. They meet in a group for 90 minutes a week. Each student meets with one other student and a clinician for more individual work.

学校的口音矫正项目为学生、教师和当地社区服务。学生们来此项目学习一两个学期。他们每周聚在一起90分钟。每个学生与另一个学生和一个临床医生见面,进行更多的个别指导。

Altogether the program amounts to about 60 hours of learning in class. Mont says the time needed to improve is different for each student.

该项目课堂学习时长总计约60小时。蒙特表示,每个人需要改进的时间因人而异。

The rate of progress absolutely depends on the type of accent it is, how long they've been speaking English, how often they speak English, how much exposure they have to the language; listening and speaking; so it's a very individualized process.

“进步速度完全取决于口音类型、说英语有多长时间、说英语的频率以及他们接触英语听说的程度,所以矫正口音是一个非常个性化的过程。”

Everyone speaks with an accent of one kind or another. People often say they want to "lose" their accent, or lessen their accent. But it is more exact to describe such an effort as "adding" or "modifying" an accent. Mont says the purpose of accent modification is to give students tools to use when they need others to understand them more clearly.

每个人都有着这样或那样的口音。大家经常说他们想改掉或减轻他们的口音。但更确切地说法是“新增”或“矫正”口音。蒙特表示,矫正口音的目的是给学生提供一种手段,让他们在需要别人更清楚地理解他们时使用。

Our goal is not to eliminate the accent. I view accent as an extension of culture; an extension of a person's individual identity - and I don't work to eliminate any part of culture from an individual.

“我们的目标不是消除口音。我认为口音是文化的延伸;是个人身份的延伸——我并不是要从一个人身上消除任何一部分文化。”

Students in the program are looking toward the future. They will most likely work in English-speaking environments when they leave school. The program teaches them tools for this. For example, they learn how to give an "elevator pitch" – a short description of an idea – and to discuss their research. They also practice interviewing and giving presentations at work.

参与这个项目的学生正在展望未来。他们毕业后很可能会在英语环境中工作。这个项目教会他们使用这些技能。例如,学生们学习如何做一个“电梯游说”——即对一个想法的简短描述,并讨论他们的研究。他们还练习职场面试和职场演讲。

The program teaches idioms and colloquial expressions as well. This helps students talk with native English speakers. The idea is to help them feel part of the English-speaking community in which they study, work and live.

这个项目也教授习语和口语俗语。这有助于学生与英语母语人士交谈。这个想法是为了帮助学生感觉自己是他们学习、工作和生活的英语社区的一份子。

Mont says that there are a few methods for modifying accent, but most have the same basis. One method is called the Compton method or Pronouncing English as a Second Language, or PESL. Arthur J. Compton developed the method in the 1980s for English learners who know English vocabulary and grammar fairly well. PESL teaching begins with a test to find out how the student's native language affects different areas of pronunciation. Then, learners use practice materials to record their own voice and compare their pronunciation attempts to recordings of a native speaker.

蒙特表示,有几种方法可以改变口音,但大多数方法都有相同的基本原则。其中一种方法叫做康普顿法,也就是把英语作为第二语言,简称PESL。亚瑟·J·康普顿在20世纪80年代为熟悉英语词汇和语法的英语学习者开发了这种方法。PESL教学以测试学生的母语如何影响不同的发音开始。然后学习者使用练习材料来录下自己的声音,并将自己的发音与母语者的录音进行比较。

Another method is the Tomatis Method, which uses special headphones and includes listening to electronically modified music and voices. This method is also used as a therapy with children who have autism or other conditions that can cause difficulty in language learning.

另一种方法是Tomatis方法,这个方法使用特殊的耳机,并听电子修改过的音乐和声音。这种方法也被用于治疗患有自闭症或其他可能导致语言学习困难的疾病的儿童。

The methods used at University of Maryland are based on data from tests of participants, Mont says. She has found that the best method is the one that works for the teacher and student. So the team may switch and use a different method if the first choice does not work.

蒙特称,马里兰大学使用的方法是基于参与者的测试数据。她发现最好的方法是对老师和学生都有效的方法。因此,如果第一种方法不起作用,团队可能会切换并使用不同的方法。

Learners who want to modify their accent often take a "do-it-yourself" approach, thinking they know exactly what to work on. But that is not as easy as it may sound. The participants at University of Maryland's Accent Modification Program learn how to listen to and examine their own speech pattern. They also learn to produce separate sounds and then work on intonation of sentences. Over time, they build confidence in speaking understandably in particular situations: class discussions, phone calls, interviews and discussions of their research.

想要改变口音的英语学习者通常采取“独自训练”的方法,并且认为他们知道该如何练习。但这并不像听上去那么容易。马里兰大学口音矫正项目的参与者学习如何倾听和检查自己的说话模式。他们还学习单个单词的发音,然后学习句子的语调。日积月累,他们在课堂讨论、电话、采访和研究讨论等特定情况下建立起了“自己说的话别人听得懂”的信心。

Accent modification is like any other tool, Mont says.

蒙特表示,口音矫正和其它任何工具一样。

When you need it, pull it out of the bag, and when you don't need it, it's fine to put it away... if you are using accent modification for work advancement, for example, then be comfortable in your home environment and with friends. Use the accent modification tools that you have learned when you need them.

“当你需要它的时候,就把它从包里拿出来,当你不需要它的时候,就把它收起来......比如,如果你是为了工作进步而使用矫正过的口音,那么在家里和朋友在一起时,就请随意一些。在需要的时候使用矫正过的口音。”

Mont's final advice to English learners is not to expect to sound exactly like a native speaker.

蒙特对英语学习者的最后建议是:不要期望自己的发音听起来跟英语母语人士完全一样。

Don't compare yourself to native English-speaking peers and colleagues. Unless it is an imitation or mimicking, you're not likely to sound exactly like your native English-speaking peers, and that's okay.

“不要拿自己与母语为英语的同龄人和同事作比较。除非是模仿,否则你的发音不太可能跟母语是英语的同龄人的发音一样,这没关系。”

And remember, even native English speakers do not all speak alike!

记住,即使母语时英语的人也各有各的口音。

I'm Jill Robbins. And I'm Bryan Lynn.

我是吉尔·罗宾斯。我是布莱恩··琳恩。

小e英语Jewel翻译!

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