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是什么让小鸡快乐?看似很囧其实直接影响到我们健康的研究

kira86 于2018-12-28发布 l 已有人浏览
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是什么让小鸡快乐?为了找到这些问题的答案,加拿大的研究人员对16个品种鸡进行了一系列的生理和心理测试。
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Researchers Ask: What Makes Chickens Happy?

研究人员疑惑:是什么让小鸡快乐?

How do you measure a chicken's happiness? Is it in the way it runs for food?Or by how much time it spends cleaning itself?

你是如何衡量一只鸡的快乐呢?是它觅食的方式吗?或是它花了多少时间清洁自己?

To find the answers to these questions, researchers in Canada are putting 16 kinds of chickens through a series physical and mental tests.

为了找到这些问题的答案,加拿大的研究人员对16个品种鸡进行了一系列的生理和心理测试。

They are watching how well the birds can climb over a barrier for food, how nervous they appear and whether they play with a fake worm.Chickens cannot say how they feel, but researchers believe that playing with the worm might be a sign of happiness.

他们正在观察这些鸡如何穿越障碍物觅食,它们看起来有多紧张,它们是否与假虫子玩耍。小鸡无法用言语表达它们的感受,但研究人员相信,与虫子玩耍可能是一种快乐的表现。

The researchers are with Ontario's University of Guelph. Stephanie Torrey is one of the researchers. Torrey said the animal welfare world wants to do more than just reduce suffering. Now, researchers aim to learn if and how animals can really enjoy their lives.

研究人员来自安大略省圭尔夫大学。斯蒂芬妮·托里是其中一名研究人员。托里说,动物福利界想做的不仅仅是减少动物的痛苦。现在,研究人员的目标是研究动物是否以及如何真正享受它们的生活。

Supporters of animal welfare say the poor treatment of chickens begins with birds that have been bred to have breasts so big they cannot fully walk.They say today's chickens are unusually huge and in great pain. They say the industry needs to change breeds.

动物福利运动的支持者说,虐待小鸡始于改变鸡的品种,人们培育过度生长的,胸部大到不能完全行走的鸡。如今的鸡长的很大,它们很痛。他们说,这个行业需要改变品种。

Many in the chicken industry say there is no problem.They say that broiler chickens - the most commonly used bird -- may not move around a lot because they do not have a lot of energy. Even if the industry agreed to change breeds, it is not clear what the new birds should look like.

许多养鸡业人士表示,培育过度发育的鸡没有问题。他们说,肉鸡——最常食用的鸟类——可能不会常走动,因为它们没有太多的能量。即使业界同意改变品种,也不清楚这种新品种的鸡会长什么样。

The two sides also disagree about the cause and frequency of health issues among chickens.

双方还对鸡群频发的健康问题及原因存在分歧。

Chicken companies Tyson and Sanderson Farms, for example, admit that the size of chicken breasts has increased greatly over the years.But both say they are not seeing widespread problems as a result.

例如,泰森鸡肉食品公司和桑德森农场承认,这些年来,鸡胸的尺寸大幅增加。但双方都表示,他们并没有看到因此而普遍存在的问题。

John Glisson of the U.S. Poultry and Egg Association says broiler chickens are especially inactive by nature. Some people may mistake the birds' inactivity for a medical problem.

美国家禽和蛋类协会的成员约翰·格利森说,肉鸡天生就不活跃。有些人会误认为这类鸡的不活跃是健康问题。

The industry says changing chicken breeds would be costly in several ways. Changing to broiler chickens that do not grow as big or as fast would mean using up more water and other resources.Chicken prices at food stores would be higher, too.

该行业表示,改变鸡的品种将代价高昂。如果改用成长慢,发育小的肉鸡,就意味着会消耗更多的水和其他资源。那么鸡肉价格也会更高。

Still, animal welfare is becoming a bigger public image concern.Companies say they are always looking for ways to take better care of their chickens.

不过,动物福利组织逐渐形成一个更大的公众形象。公司表示,他们一直在寻找更好地照顾鸡的方法。

Tyson recently ran a trial in which it let chickens choose from living areas with differing levels of light.And company Perdue is testing giving its usual birds as much light and space as its organic birds.

泰森食品公司最近进行了一项试验,让鸡从光线不同的生活区进行选择。铂杜公司正在测试给普通鸟类和有机鸟类一样多的光照和空间。

The Humane Society of the United States says improving chickens' living conditions helps. But, it believes the bigger problem is breeding that has resulted in misshapen chickens. It says chickens have been genetically changed to be so huge that their legs cannot support them.

美国人道主义协会说,改善鸡的生活条件是很好的做法。但是,该协会认为更大的问题是饲养导致鸡畸形。他们表示,鸡的基因已经发生巨大改变,小鸡的腿根本无法支撑住它们。

It is crazy for anyone to have to remind the industry that birds naturally walk, said Josh Balk, the Humane Society's vice president of farm animal protection.

动物保护协会负责农场动物保护的副主席乔希·伯克说,“这太疯狂了,任何人都必须提醒养殖界,鸟类是自然行走的。”

Balk said the study in Canada will provide important information on what breeds of chickens might suffer less.

伯克说,加拿大的这项研究将提供重要的信息,告诉人们哪些品种的鸡遭受的痛苦可能会少一些。

University of Guelph researchers are examining chicken qualities such as weight, growth rate and meat quality.They hope the information will be useful to the industry.

圭尔夫大学的研究人员也在检测鸡肉的质量,比如重量、生长速度和肉类质量。他们希望这些信息对养鸡业有用。

Several companies say they already track chicken health and welfare themselves. Still, they are interested in the research.

几家公司表示,他们已经开始关注鸡的健康和福利。他们对这项研究还是很感兴趣的。

The Guelph study is supported by the Global Animal Partnership, which certifies corporate animal welfare requirements.In 2016, it launched a campaign to get companies to change to "slower growing" breeds of chickens.Since then, it has admitted that chicken welfare is more complex than just growth rate.

圭尔夫的研究得到了全球动物伙伴组织的支持,该组织负责认证企业的动物福利要求。2016年,该公司发起了一项运动,要求企业改用“慢速生长”的鸡肉品种。从那以后,它承认,鸡的福利增长比鸡的数量增长更复杂。

It is now pushing for a "better" chicken, and hopes the study will help define what that means.

现在它正在推动一种“更好”的鸡肉,并希望这项研究能解释这其中的意义。

I'm Ashley Thompson.

阿什利·汤普森为您播报。

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